Child labour, this is term is often heard and spoken whenever people talk about slums, poor people, underprivileged societies. But people never go one step ahead and read about it, try to do browse about it, try to reach NGO’s or government’s site to get updated about it. These are one of the main causes, that why the movements related to child issue just spread within only the social activist. Here I will try to uncover some similar facts about child labour. 1 in every 11 children in India works to earn a living, according to statistics by action Aid India There are five states which are India’s biggest child labour employers Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, as per data given out by saving children NGO. National capital Delhi is responsible for a share of 1 million child labour alone.
1.What is child labour-
The Child and Adolescent Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act of 1986: A “Child” is defined as any person below the age of 14 and the CLPR Act prohibits employment of a Child in any employment including as domestic help (except helping own family in non-hazardous occupations). It is a cognizable criminal offence to employ a Child for any work. Children between age of 14 and 18 are defined as “Adolescent” and the law allows Adolescent to be employed except in the listed hazardous occupation and processes which include mining, inflammable substance and explosives related work and any other hazardous process as per the Factories Act, 1948.
In addition to this
The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009: The law mandates free and compulsory education to all children aged 6 to 14 years. This legislation also mandated that 25 per cent of seats in every private school must be allocated for children from economically disadvantaged groups (implementation gaps remain).
2.Very high ratio of child labour-
In 2011, there are 5.6 Million boys and 4.5 Million girls, in a total of 10.1 Million child labour in India. The total population of children in India is 259.6 million hence approx. 3.6% child labour, and in addition to this around 42.7 children are out of school approx. 16.5% of children are not having their fundamental rights.
3.Sectors of child labour– % Numbers
Agricultural labourers 32.9%
Household industry workers 5.2%
Other workers 35.8%
It’s a big myth that child labour is only in rural areas, perhaps there is a very large no. of child labours in domestic work.
4.Global figure– 265 million working children in the world—almost 17 per cent of the worldwide child population,
5.Impacts of child labor-
a)Lack of education- children are forced to work. They aren’t allowed to go to schools. So it leads to lacks of knowledge, skills etc.
b)Social and emotional loss- these children are forced to left their homes, there they aren’t getting support and love from there parents, didn’t grow up in society and culture, get’s enslaved and torcher by traffickers. Which leads them towards serious mental health issues, depression, fear etc.
c)Harmful injuries- Due to working in mines, factories, using hazards etc. a single accident can harm their any body parts easily. They might get a life long wound or diseases.
d)Underdevelopment- due to poor quality of nutrients, their body gets nourished properly that’s why their many body parts didn’t grow properly. Due to this many, they are not able to do many fundamental activities when they grow up.
e)Lack of motor skills- Due to enslavement since early childhood, they didn’t get the chance to develop their many motor skills which they learn from physical activities, sports, exercise etc.
6.Why child as labour- The common explanations are the lower cost and alleged irreplaceable skills (“nimble fingers”) of child workers compared with adults. The viability of entire industries depends, so it is claimed, on child labour.
7.A global pandemic, crises and their effect on child labour- like Spanish flu, WW1, WW2 etc, after these crises the economy get highly damage these results high rate of unemployment. And unemployment increase in child labour forces children to stop going to school. There are very similar chances that can reoccur after COVID-19 pandemic.
8.Extra references– please have a look at websites of these NGO’s for more info- ilo.org , Bachpan Bachao Andolan, ChildFund, CARE India, Talaash Association, Child Rights and You, Global march against child labour, Bundelkhand matra bhumi samaj sevi sansthan project stop working with child labour in India, GoodWeave India, RIDE India, Childline, etc